Nessun evento in programma.
dal 13 agosto, 2012
al 15 agosto, 2012
SI RICERCANO 30 COLLABORATORI PER L'EVENTO DI FERRAGOSTO AD OSTIA
PER INFO CONTATTARE GLI UFFICI DELLA PROLOCO ...
il 12 luglio, 2012
ITALIA LOVES EMILIA
Excavation - Landscape
Thermae of Neptune - Mosaic
Forum and Capitolium
Terme dei Sette Sapienti
OSTIA ANTICA EXCAVATION
717, Via dei Romagnoli
00119 - Ostia Antica (Rm)
Web Site: www.ostiantica.info
Price: € 4.00
Cut price: € 2.00
From November to February: from 08.30 to 16.00.
Exit before 17.00
March: from 08.30 to 17.00. Exit before 18.00.
From last Sunday of March to the last Sunday of October: from 08.30 to 18.00.
Exit before 19.30.
Every Monday, 1° of January, 1° of May, 25 of December.
How to get here
By car: take the Via del Mare and Via Ostiense Street (km 22) or the Via C. Colombo, Pontina highway freeway (exit: Pratica di Mare airport), Via Aurelia (Civitavecchia - Fiumicino) and Rome - Fiumicino motorway (exit: Leonardo da Vinci airport); then follow the directions to Ostia.
By train: take the Roma - Lido railway (Ostia Antica stop)
By bus: 04 line which has a terminal at Lido Centro Station.
ANCO MARZIO'S FIGURE
According to the tradition, Anco Marzio was the fourth king of Rome, reigning from 640 to 616 b.c.
He is given credit, besides the founding of Ostia, for the building the Sublicio bridge, crossing the Tiber, then occupying Gianicolo and Aventine hills, in order to dominate the road crossing the bridge, the conquest of Murcia Valley, between Palatino and Aventine, the building of the first public prison, excavated under the Capitol and the subjugation of the adjoining Latin towns.
The archaeological park of Ostia Antica is a must for those who want to enjoy the beauty of one of the most visited and best preserved historical sites of the Roman world.
The park extends over 50 hectares and shows the remains of the Romes fi rst colony and visitors can observe changes occurred to the city over about eight centuries.
Just at the entrance of excavations, the first thing we meet is the ancient necropolis of Ostia, ending at the edge of the Walls of Sulla, evidenced by the remains of Porta Romana (Roman Gate).
Here is where the Decumano Massimo, citys main street, begins.
Going along this road, to the right is a big arcade and a flight of steps leading to a terrace overlooking magnificent Neptunes Thermae.
THERMAE OF NEPTUNE
Started in the times of Hadrian and finished by emperor Antonino Pio, this monumental thermal building follows the contours of a previous structure of Domitian, probably the biggest used as public thermae in Ostia.
Remarkable are the two entrance-halls to the thermae: in the larger one the Triumph of Neptune is represented, the finest mosaic of Ostia, showing the god of the sea driving a quadriga of hippocampus, surrounded by a cortege of dolphins, nereids and tritons.
In the smaller one, another mosaic shows Amphitrite, spouse of Neptune, guided by Imene and four Tritons playing cymbals.
Proceeding along the Decumano Massimo we reach the Roman Theatre and Piazzale delle Corporazioni.
Centre of the ancient town and only big building used for performances, the Roman Theatre is the most representative structure of Ostia Antica, still in use for summer performances.
Built in 12 A.D. under Augustus reign, it was restored and enlarged at the end of the second century B.C. by Commodus, in order to hold 4000 spectators in its cavea.
It was opened in in 196,so that Septimus Severus (193-2119) and his son Caracalla (212-217) could claim credit for the work in the monumental inscription rebuilt and mounted on a wall of the corridor on the right of the orchestra, the lower area of the theatre.
Inside the theatre there were tabernae (shops), where spectators could take some refreshments during pauses.
Tabernae alternated with four stairs, leading spectators to the upper floors of the cavea, which can currently hold about 2700 people.
Wealthy citizens and magistrates of the colony didnt use the stairs, but entered from the central gallery, because the lower order of seats was reserved for the authorities.
The gallery leads to the no longer existing stage, originally rising by three architectural orders: some fragments of it are found, with three theatrical masks, fixed on the wall of the proscenium.
The theatre was also used for aquatic displays, flooding the orchestra.
The square was planned as a unicum with the theatre in Augustan era.
It could hold, in 50 rooms, the offices of the stationes (commercial and maritime agencies) and was the centre of commercial life in Ostia, and the place for business connected to maritime trades.
In 196 A.D. it was restored and the porticus enlarged, the number of stationes increased to 64.
The white and black mosaic decorations, now visible, date back to that second period.
The mosaic inscriptions illustrate the various commercial and maritime activities of each station, grouped in cities and provinces.
On one side, the stationes were occupied by merchants coming from north Africa, such as Sabratha in Libya and Carthago, on the other side some mosaics refer to Spain, with which Ostia had close connections.
In another sector there are stationes of commercial corporations pointing out the kind of commerce as for instance wine and meat.
In the centre of the square shows up, on a podium, a temple dedicated to an unknown divinity.
Going on the Decumano Massimo, we take the road of the Mills, where we can admire, on the right, the Thermae of the Forum.
THERMAE OF THE FORUM
The largest thermal unit of Ostia was built in the II century A.D., restored in late empire era and intended to become one of the most representative of the city.
Remarkable is the large trapezoidal gymnasium surrounded with arcades and paved with mosaic, the imposing structures contain the laconicum (steam baths), the calidarium (hot water baths), where large windows illuminated rooms, and the frigidarium (cold water baths) placedin an underground passage that allowed the thermae workers to get the steam boilers going.
Next to the thermae, on the Cardine Maximum, we can see the Temple of Rome and Augustus.
THE TEMPLE OF ROME AND AUGUST
The temple, built right after Augustus’ death, by will of his successor Tiberius, was for a long time one of the colony’s most imposing buildings, because of the important veneration of Augustus, founder of the Empire, considered as a true divinity.
Today only the marble frontal, the podium foundations and one of the statues of cult, the one representing Rome, still remain.
It seems that on the front there was a tribune from where the orators used to speak to the people in the Forum. Following the same direction, we arrive to the Forum and Capitolium.
FORUM AND CAPITOLIUM
The Forum was the centre of the political, commercial and judicial activities in every part of the Roman Empire.
Built around 20-25 A.D., the Ostiensis Forum, with a rectangular shape, occupied the space of the buildings belonging to the Castrum.
The two parts of the square were surrounded by arcades and the access from north and south was forbidden to carts and allowed only to pedestrians to increase the area’s politic and religious function.
The Capitolium, the cult place of the three most important roman religion divinities (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) was built on a podium in around 25 A.D., by Emperor Hadrian’s will, after a small temple rising there was demolished.
The Capitolium, 20 metres high, overlooks the entire city; the deep side of the cell is occupied by a podium supporting the worshipped statues.
On the left of Capitolium, in the direction of Diana, there is the Thermopolium entrance.
Built in the III century inside a previous building, the Thermopolium (our common cafeteria) was for sure one of the most attended places in the city because of its location close to the Forum.
It consisted of two big rooms and had at the sides of the entrances some stone benches where the clients could sit down and have meals.
The central room was the real cafeteria; it still has a counter with a fresco showing food and beverages that were popular at that time.
Another room was probably the kitchen because provided of a stone stove and a dolium, a big terracotta jar, embedded in the floor.
In the back of the Thermopolium, a small yard is still visible: it had a fountain which allowed the guests, during the hottest months, to enjoy the meals outdoors.
On the right side of the Thermopolium, we can see the house of Diana..
THE HOUSE OF DIANA
Previously built on three or four floors, the house was probably 18 metres high.
It was built around 130-140 A.D. and it represents the typical insulae (block of buildings with one or more floors), it consists in several apartments which the owner used to rent.
On the inside we can see, at different heights, various floor levels of II, III, IV and V centuries. There are also taverns on the ground floor: these weren’t just stores like we consider them today; in most cases, artisan laboratories used to combine production with sale.
On the left wall of the indoors yard, a tablet showing Diana hunting gives the name at the house.
Going back along the Decumano Maximum we arrive to the crossroads with Epagathiana road, where at the junction continuing through the Decumano we can reach the Marciana thermaes.
Built at the end of the IInd century A.D. , they consist in a big room with a frigidarium inside, of which remain only two pilasters of a tabs apse that was about 14 metres long.
In a small room in the next store, probably a dressing room, a beautiful black and white mosaic can be seen. It shows athletes practising several sports of that time.
Following the road, we reach the Synagogue
Dating back to the Ist century A.D., the Synagogue is one of the most ancient buildings of Jewish cult.
Discovered in 1961, it was originally located next to the beach because these cult places were generally built close to the sea.
Its decorated with four columns and capitals surrounding the cult room, an aedicule having two small columns that support corbels representing candelabrums with seven arms.
Thats where the ark with the Torah and the pulpit where the reading of law used to take place were kept.
Because of the pulpits disposition, believers, while reading, used to face southeast in the direction of Jerusalem.
Going along the Decumano Maximum, on the left we can see a residential complex formed of several insulaes.
GRAFFITO INSULAE, YELLOW WALLS GRAFFITO, MUSES INSULAE AND DIOSCURIS DOMUS
This residential complex, built under Hadrians Empire, is known for its beautiful decorations. Insulaes have gorgeous wall frescos representing coloured birds, small squares and pictures, and black and white mosaics showing geometric shapes.
The Muses insulae was probably the most elegant in the city, because of its refined architectonical designs and for red and yellow background panels in where the nine muses and Apollo are represented.
This is for sure the most remarkable wall ornament in Ostia.
Of these beautiful residential houses we can also visit in the inside the biggest one, the Dioscuris Domus, located on the south side and probably owned by a famous local magistrate.
It was the only house in Ostia to have a small private thermal system that proved the owners wealth.
At the junction, following via Foce road, we reach the Seven Wises Thermaes.
SETTE SAPIENTI THERMAES
The thermal complex was used by the city less wealthy people.
A big circular room opens the complex on the left side where a big black and white mosaic, representing hunting scenes, floors the room.
An ark still showing signs of polychrome mosaic, introduces us to an old vestibule next to the tab.
Here, wall frescos show the seven wise men with their names, suggesting how to have a good body functioning. In another tab, a fresco with Venus bathing, surrounded by fishes, is visible.
Going down on via Foce until the junction, on the left on via Epagathiana, we can see the Horrea Epagathiana and Epafroditiana.
HORREA EPAGATHIANA AND EPAPHRODITIANA
This is the only horreum (storehouse) whose owners’ names we know, Epagathius and Epaphroditus, written on an epigraph located on the marble slab in the tympanum that surmounts the main entrance portal.
It dates back to the II century A.D., it wasn’t probably used as a common horreum, because of unusual storehouse constructions in the inside.
For example: the four aedicules, the images of the protectress divinities and the yard floor mosaic decoration, make us think of the horreum as a storehouse for valuable products, such as spices and precious metals.
MUSEUM OF OSTIA
Wanted by Pope Pius IX in 1865, the Museum of Ostia keeps a big collection of archaeological inventories found during the city excavations.
The statues in the museum are very well made, the most important are: Emperor Trajan, Faustina the Elder, Cartilio Poplicola, Mitria, while she kills the bull, Perseus with Medusa’s head, Julia Domna Diva and the small marble groups such as Cavaspina and Love and Psyche.
The portrait collection also includes Volacius Miropnus’ bust and Asclepio’s one, Trajan’s head and Faustina the Elder’s portrait.
In the museum we can also find a sarcophagus’ and bass-relieves’ collection, samples of wall painting obtained from tombs, polychrome mosaic symbols and an opus sectile polychrome representing the presumed image of blessing Christ.
In the museum, there is also a beautiful sarcophagus collection of the Emperial age, but the one showing Achilles in front of Hector’s body -scene from the Iliad poem, is the most representative one.